News: 2006

News relating to evolution from American Scientist, Nature, Science ,and Scientific American are listed. The most recent articles are first.

NATURE: Search
SCIENCE: Search , Evolution , Paleontology , Anthropology , Molecular Biology , Genetics.

Artificial Life; Origin of Life, Eukaryotes, Organelles; Origin/Evolution of Prokaryotes, Viruses, Introns, etc.
Ancient Birds; Dinosaurs; Other Ancient Reptiles
Human Origins and Evolution; Domestication
Other Evolutionary Biology
Political, Religious, and Educational Issues

Wong , 2006 Dec. Lucy's Baby. Scientific American (December 2006) "An amazing skeleton from 3.3 million years ago renews debate over the evolution of upright walking."

Weiner , 2006 Dec. Darwin at the Zoo. Scientific American (December 2006) "Did humans invent right and wrong, or are these feelings part of the inheritance from our primate ancestors?"
Book Review of Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved by Frans de Waal.

Balter, 2006 Dec 22. Links Between Brain Genes, Evolution, and Cognition Challenged. Science 314:1872.

Balter, 2006 Dec 22. Man Makes Waves With Claims of Recent Human Evolution. Science 314:1871-1873.

Glenner et al., 2006 Dec 22. The Origin of Insects. Science 314:1883-1884.

Venkatesh et al., 2006 Dec 22. Ancient Noncoding Elements Conserved in the Human Genome. Science 314:1892. "A whole-genome comparison between human and a cartilaginous fish that occupies a basal phylogenetic position reveals conserved noncoding elements not seen in the bony fishes. "

Koelle et al., 2006 Dec 22. Epochal Evolution Shapes the Phylodynamics of Interpandemic Influenza A (H3N2) in Humans. Science 314:1898-1903. "An epidemiological model that allows for differences between influenza's genetic and antigenic properties accurately predicts actual patterns of flu infection. "

Gompert et al., 2006 Dec 22. Homoploid Hybrid Speciation in an Extreme Habitat. Science 314:1923-1925. "As postulated by theory, a new species of butterfly evolved when a hybrid of two existing species became adapted to an extreme alpine environment."

Royo-Torres et al., 2006 Dec 22. A Giant European Dinosaur and a New Sauropod Clade. Science 314:1925-1927. "A giant sauropod, representing a new clade of dinosaurs, inhabited Europe in the Late Jurassic and appears to be more primitive than New World giant sauropods."

Check, 2006 Dec 21. Human evolution: How Africa learned to love the cow. (restricted access) Nature 444:994. "The development of lactose tolerance in sub-Saharan Africa is a fascinating tale of genetic convergence."

Clutton-Brock et al., 2006 Dec 21. Intrasexual competition and sexual selection in cooperative mammals. Nature 444:1065.

Gibbons, 2006 Dec 15. There's More Than One Way to Have Your Milk and Drink It, Too. Science 314:1672.

Postma et al., 2006 Dec 14. Evolution of mate choice in the wild. Nature 444:E16.

Qvarnström et al., 2006 Dec 14. Evolution of mate choice in the wild (Reply). Nature 444:E16.

Meng et al., 2006 Dec 14. A Mesozoic gliding mammal from northeastern China. Nature 444:889.

Kutschera, 2006 Dec 07. A timely wake-up call as anti-evolutionists publicize their views. (restricted access) Nature 444:679.

Lorenc-Pluciska, 2006 Dec 07. Creationist views have no basis in science. (restricted access) Nature 444:679.

?, 2006 Dec 07. Creationists weaken society's trust in scientists. (restricted access) Nature 444:679.

de Jong and Korthof, 2006 Dec 07. Claim of bias against critics is refuted by publication. (restricted access) Nature 444:679.

Balthasar and Maidment, 2006 Dec 07. Pseudoscience should not be published in Nature. (restricted access) Nature 444:679.

Charlesworth, 2006 Dec 07. There is no new evidence that undermines evolution. (restricted access) Nature 444:680.

Hurd, 2006 Dec 07. Walking with dinosaurs? Not in the real world. (restricted access) Nature 444:680.

?, 2006 Dec 07. Creationists pose political, not scientific, threat. (restricted access) Nature 444:680.

Underdown, 2006 Dec 07. How the word 'hominid' evolved to include hominin. (restricted access) Nature 444:680.

?, 2006 Dec 07. Evolutionary biology: Caught right-handed. (restricted access) Nature 444:689. "Are two penises better than one? Not so, implies a study of doubly endowed earwigs. An ancestral behavioural preference for the right penis might have facilitated the loss of the left in species that arose later."

Schliewen et al., 2006 Dec 07. Evolutionary Biology: Evidence for sympatric speciation? Nature 444:E12.

Barluenga et al., 2006 Dec 07. Evolutionary Biology: Evidence for sympatric speciation? (Reply). Nature 444:E13.

Macchiarelli et al., 2006 Dec 07. How Neanderthal molar teeth grew. Nature 444:748.

Boyd, 2006 Dec 08. The Puzzle of Human Sociality. Science 314:1555-1556.

Nowak, 2006 Dec 08. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation. Science 314:1560-1563.

Pennisi, 2006 Nov 24. Two Rapidly Evolving Genes Spell Trouble for Hybrids. Science 314:1238-1239.

Kiessling, 2006 Nov 24. Life's Complexity Cast in Stone. Science 314:1254-1255.

Brideau et al., 2006 Nov 24. Two Dobzhansky-Muller Genes Interact to Cause Hybrid Lethality in Drosophila. Science 314:1292-1295. "Sterility in the hybrid offspring of two fruit fly species is caused by a pair of interacting genes, one of which has been positively selected."

Roumagnac, 2006 Nov 24. Evolutionary History of Salmonella Typhi. Science 314:1301-1304. "A large survey of the bacterial strain that causes human typhoid fever suggests that it spread globally during epidemics and persists in asymptomatic carriers."

?, 2006 Nov 23. Anti-evolutionists raise their profile in Europe. (restricted access)Nature 444:406. "The teaching of alternative theories to evolution in schools is not just an issue in the United States. Almut Graebsch and Quirin Schiermeier assess whether creationism is threatening science in Europe."

Al-Khalili, 2006 Nov 23. Life in the universal porridge. Nature 444:423. "What were the chances that the conditions in the Universe would be just right for life?"
Book Review of The Goldilocks Enigma: Why Is the Universe Just Right for Life? by Paul Davies.

Pennisi, 2006 Nov 24. The Dawn of Stone Age Genomics. Science 314:1068-1071.

Balter, 2006 Nov 24. A Neandertal Legacy? Science 314:1071.

Arendt, 2006 Nov 24. A Kernel Bears Fruit. Science 314:1085-1086.
Book Review of The Regulatory Genome by Eric H. Davidson.

Dalton, 2006 Nov 16. Neanderthal genome sees first light. Nature 444:254. "Initial sequences sheds light on common ancestor."

Levit et al., 2006 Nov 16. Creationists attack secular education in Russia. Nature 444:265.

?, 2006 Nov 16. Creationism, evolution: nothing has been proved. (restricted access) Nature 444:265.

Bradley, 2006 Nov 16. Opposition to science. (restricted access) Nature 444:271. "A molecular biologist explores the gulf between spirituality and his own rationalist viewpoint."
Book Review of Challenging Nature: The Clash of Science and Spirituality at the New Frontiers of Life by Lee M. Silver.

Lambert and Millar, 2006 Nov 16. Evolutionary biology: Ancient genomics is born. Nature 444:275. "The reality of a complete Neanderthal genome draws near, as two papers report the sequencing of large amounts of Neanderthal DNA. The results will help to answer some central questions on human evolution."

Pennisi, 2006 Nov 24. GENETICS: Sea Urchin Genome Confirms Kinship to Humans and Other Vertebrates. Science 314:908-909.

?, 2006 Nov 24. Soft Tissue in Dinosaur Fossils? The Evidence Hardens. Science 314:920.

Devlin, 2006 Nov 24. Are We Dancing Apes? Science 314:.
Book Review of Toward an Evolutionary Biology of Language by Philip Lieberman.

Long et al., 2006 Nov 09. An exceptional Devonian fish from Australia sheds light on tetrapod origins. Nature 444:199.

Nee, 2006 Nov 02. Beautiful models. (restricted access) Nature 444:37. "The dynamics of evolutionary processes creates a remarkable picture of life."
Book Review of Evolutionary Dynamics: Exploring the Equations of Life by Martin Nowak.

Queller, 2006 Nov 02. Evolutionary biology: To work or not to work. Nature 444:42. "Coercion, not kinship, often determines who acts altruistically in an insect colony. But underlying affinities for kin emerge when coercion is removed: kin selection is what turns suppressed individuals into altruists."

Wenseleers and Ratnieks, 2006 Nov 02. Enforced altruism in insect societies. Nature 444:50.

Fisher et al., 2006 Nov 02. Post-mating sexual selection increases lifetime fitness of polyandrous females in the wild. Nature 444:89.

Shermer, 2006 Oct. Darwin on the Right. Scientific American (October 2006) "Why Christians and conservatives should accept evolution."

?, 2006 Oct. The Editors Recommend. Scientific American (October 2006)
Book Review of From Lucy to Language by Donald Johanson and Blake Edgar.

Johnson, 2006 Oct. Scientists on Religion. Scientific American (October 2006) "Theist and materialist ponder the place of humanity in the universe."
Book Review of God's Universe by Owen Gingerich.
Book Review of The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief by Francis S. Collins.
Book Review of The God Delusion by Richard Dawkins.
Book Review of The Varieties of Scientific Experience: A Personal View of the Search for God by Carl Sagan.

Pennisi, 2006 Oct 27 Honey Bee Genome Illuminates Insect Evolution and Social Behavior. Science 314:578-579.

Gibbons, 2006 Oct 27. Lucy's Tour Abroad Sparks Protests. Science 314:574-575.

Poinar and Danforth, 2006 Oct 27. A Fossil Bee from Early Cretaceous Burmese Amber . Science 314:614. "A fossil bee carrying traces of pollen in 100-million-year-old amber shows that bees originated in the Cretaceous at a time of rapid diversification of angiosperms."

Schaap et al., 2006 Oct 27. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Morphology in the Social Amoebas. Science 314:661-663. "Morphology is strikingly at odds with molecular data for classification of cellular slime molds, suggesting that a full revision of their phylogeny is needed."

Graebsch, 2006 Oct 26. Polish scientists fight creationism. (restricted access) Nature 443:890. "Deputy education minister calls evolution a 'lie'."

Charlesworth, 2006 Oct 26. Evidence for evolution. (restricted access) Nature 443:910.
Book Review of The Making of the Fittest: DNA and the Ultimate Forensic Record of Evolution by Sean B. Carroll.

Krauss, 2006 Oct 26. Sermons and straw men. (restricted access) Nature 443:914.
Book Review of The God Delusion by Richard Dawkins.

Janvier, 2006 Oct 26. Palaeontology: Modern look for ancient lamprey. Nature 443:921. "It was once thought that lampreys evolved from armoured jawless vertebrates. But a recently discovered lamprey fossil dates from the twilight age of their supposed ancestors, and looks surprisingly modern."

Chiappe and Bertelli, 2006 Oct 26. Palaeontology: Skull morphology of giant terror birds. Nature 443:929. "These monstrous birds were probably more agile and less portly than previously thought."

Stuessy, 2006 Oct 26. Evolutionary biology: Sympatric plant speciation in islands? Nature 443:E12.

The Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium, 2006 Oct 26. Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera. Nature 443:931.

Gess et al., 2006 Oct 26. A lamprey from the Devonian period of South Africa. Nature 443:981.

Tarchini et al., 2006 Oct 26. Regulatory constraints in the evolution of the tetrapod limb anterior–posterior polarity. Nature 443:985.

Miller et al., 2006 Oct 20. Direct Demonstration of an Adaptive Constraint . Science 314:458-461. "The intrinsic properties of a leucine biosynthetic enzyme can prevent the test-tube evolution of seemingly adaptive traits—increased catalysis rate, for example."

Nicholls, 2006 Oct 19. A life online. Nature 443:746. "Darwin is the latest eminent scientist to get an online archive. How do these undertakings change our understanding of history?"

Bruns, 2006 Oct 19. Evolutionary biology: A kingdom revised. Nature 443:758. "An international consortium of researchers has produced an impressive new tree of life for the kingdom Fungi. The results are a testament to cooperation between systematists with different expertise."

Delson and Harvati, 2006 Oct 19. Palaeoanthropology: Return of the last Neanderthal. (restricted access) Nature 443:762. "New finds from Gibraltar date Mousterian tools to as recently as 28,000 years ago. By inference, their Neanderthal makers survived in southern Iberia long after all other well-dated occurrences of the species."

Finlayson et al., 2006 Oct 19. Late survival of Neanderthals at the southernmost extreme of Europe. Nature 443:850.

Russell et al., 2006 Oct 19. An early evolutionary origin for the minor spliceosome. Nature 443:863.

Andersson, 2006 Oct 13. The Bacterial World Gets Smaller . Science 314:259-260.

Nakabachi et al., 2006 Oct 13. The 160-Kilobase Genome of the Bacterial Endosymbiont Carsonella. Science 314: 267. "Although densely packed with genes, the tiny genome of an insect symbiont lacks some genes for essential functions, suggesting that it may be evolving into an organelle."

Pérez-Brocal et al., 2006 Oct 13. A Small Microbial Genome: The End of a Long Symbiotic Relationship? Science 314:312-313. "An aphid symbiont with a small genome has lost most metabolic functions, suggesting that it may soon be subsumed by another, more competent symbiont."

Brumfiel, 2006 Oct 12. Intelligent design gets political. (restricted access) Nature 443:615. "Teaching creationism becomes an election issue in Michigan."

Barton, 2006 Oct 12. Chimp comparisons won't explain human evolution. (restricted access) Nature 443:632.

Wills, 2006 Oct 12. Evolution's highest branches. (restricted access) Nature 443:633. "An intriguing tour around and, especially, up the tree of life."
Book Review of Creatures of Accident: The Rise of the Animal Kingdom by Wallace Arthur.

Moses, 2006 Oct 12. Evolutionary biology: Fly eyes get the whole picture. Nature 443:638. "The compound eyes of ancestral flies picked up only one picture point in each facet. The evolution of a means to split up the light-sensitive cells increased this number to seven, boosting the eye's resolution greatly."

Marshall, 2006 Oct 06. Fossil Record Reveals Tropics as Cradle and Museum . Science 314:66-67.

Jablonski, 2006 Oct 06. Out of the Tropics: Evolutionary Dynamics of the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient. Science 314:102-106. "Analysis of marine bivalve fossils shows that the tendency of taxa to originate in the tropics and then expand poleward accounts for decreasing diversity toward the poles."

Pagel, et al., 2006 Oct 06. Large Punctuational Contribution of Speciation to Evolutionary Divergence at the Molecular Level. Science 314:119-121. "About one-fifth of the amino acid changes producing genetic differences among species groups occur during rapid bursts of evolution; the rest accumulate during gradual divergence."

Biémont and Vieira, 2006 Oct 05. Genetics: Junk DNA as an evolutionary force. Nature 443:521. "Transposable elements were long dismissed as useless, but they are emerging as major players in evolution. Their interactions with the genome and the environment affect how genes are translated into physical traits."

Jensen et al., 2006 Oct 05. Co-evolution of transcriptional and post-translational cell-cycle regulation. Nature 443:594.

Azevedo et al., 2006 Oct 05. Sexual reproduction selects for robustness and negative epistasis in artificial gene networks. (restricted access) Nature 443:598.

Lewis, 2006 Oct 05. A jumping off point. Nature 443:600. "The recent flood of genome sequences has given evolutionary genetics a boost. Ricki Lewis takes a sharp look at a varied field."

Goodman, 2006 Sep 28. Piltdown wasn't cricket but does the hobbit ring true? (restricted access) Nature 443:394.

Rokas, 2006 Sep 28. Different paths to the same end. (restricted access)Nature 443:401. "Genetic dissection of a yeast gene-regulatory pathway shows that the logical output of such a pathway can remain the same even though the molecular mechanisms underlying the output have diverged remarkably."

Tsong et al., 2006 Sep 28. Evolution of alternative transcriptional circuits with identical logic. Nature 443:415.

Gibbons, 2006 Sep 22. Lucy's 'Child' Offers Rare Glimpse of an Ancient Toddler. Science 313:1716.

?, 2006 Sep 21. The history man. Nature 443:268. "Maurice Taieb laid the groundwork for the discovery of Lucy, the most famous fossil human ancestor. Rex Dalton meets the Tunisian-born geologist who prefers the desert to the limelight."

Wood, 2006 Sep 21. A precious little bundle. Nature 443:278. "The three-million-year old skeleton of a three-year-old child provides an outstanding resource to understand the development of a human ancestor that seems to have both walked upright and climbed through trees."

Alemseged et al., 2006 Sep 21. A juvenile early hominin skeleton from Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 443:296.

Vogeli et al., 2006 Sep 21. A common progenitor for haematopoietic and endothelial lineages in the zebrafish gastrula. Nature 443:337.

Ponting and Lunter, 2006 Sep 14. Evolutionary biology: Human brain gene wins genome race. Nature 443:149. "The differences in brain size and function that separate humans from other mammals must be reflected in our genomes. It seems that the non-coding 'dark matter' of genomes harbours most of these vital changes."

Pennisi, 2006 Sep 08. Sex and the Single Killifish . Science 313:1381.

Check, 2006 Sep 07. Mix and match: the hunt for what makes us human. (restricted access) Nature 443:8. "Researchers sift primate genomes for clues to why human brains are so different."

Pagel, 2006 Sep 07. A pro-darwinian tool-kit. (restricted access) Nature 443:31.
Book Review of Darwinism and its Discontents by Michael Ruse.

Smith, 2006 Sep 07. Reflections on Wallace. Nature 443:33. "An unpublished paper has recently come to light, which shows that even at an early age, Alfred Russel Wallace was bold enough to approach the scientific establishment with his ideas."

?, 2006 Sep 01. Phytophthora Genome Sequences Uncover Evolutionary Origins and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis . Science 313:1261-1266. "The enigmatic parasite that causes sudden oak death carries the genetic signature of an ancestral photosynthetic symbiont that suggests a recent expansion of pathogenic protein families. "

Popesco et al., 2006 Sep 01. Human Lineage–Specific Amplification, Selection, and Neuronal Expression of DUF1220 Domains. Science 313:1304-1307. "A comparison of human and four great-ape genomes reveals that a class of neural genes appears to have been dramatically amplified in the human lineage. "

Corfe and Butler, 2006 Sep 01. Comment on "A Well-Preserved Archaeopteryx Specimen with Theropod Features." Science 313:1238.

Mayr and Peters, 2006 Sep 01. Response to Comment on "A Well-Preserved Archaeopteryx Specimen with Theropod Features." Science 313:1238.

Gerstein and Zheng, 2006 Aug. The Real Life of Pseudogenes. (restricted access) Scientific American (August 2006). "Disabled genes, once dismissed as detritus on the genomic landscape, trace the path of evolution--and may not always be entirely dead."

Cohn, 2006 Aug 31. Making the paper. (restricted access) Nature 442:xi. "Fish fossils and sharks offer clues to the origin of vertebrate limbs."

?, 2006 Aug 31. Rude palaeoanthropology. (restricted access)Nature 442:957. "Controversies over Homo floresiensis reflect a flourishing science."

Coyne, 2006 Aug 31. Selling Darwin. (restricted access) Nature 442:983. "Does it matter whether evolution has any commercial applications?"
Book Review of The Evolving World: Evolution in Everyday Life by David P. Mindell.

Freitas et al., 2006 Aug 31. Evidence that mechanisms of fin development evolved in the midline of early vertebrates. Nature 442:1033.

Culotta, 2006 Aug 25. Skeptics Seek to Slay the 'Hobbit,' Calling Flores Skeleton a Modern Human. Science 313:1028-1029.

Wilf et al., 2006 Aug 25. Decoupled Plant and Insect Diversity After the End-Cretaceous Extinction. Science 313:1112-1115. "After the end-Cretaceous extinction, plants diversified without many insects in some places, whereas elsewhere insect herbivores diversified despite few plant species."

Mehdiabadi et al., 2006 Aug 24. Social evolution: Kin preference in a social microbe. Nature 442:881. "Given the right circumstances, even an amoeba chooses to be altruistic towards its relatives."

Hurst et al., 2006 Aug 24. Protein evolution: Causes of trends in amino-acid gain and loss. Nature 442:E11.

Jordan et al., 2006 Aug 24. Protein evolution: Causes of trends in amino-acid gain and loss (Reply). Nature 442:E12.

Bernhard et al., 2006 Aug 24. Parochial altruism in humans. Nature 442:.
Book Review of The Race to Discover Our Earliest Ancestors by Ann GIbbons.

Begun, 2006 Aug 18. The First Human. Science 313:920. "Seeking the Base of Our Branch."

Kramer and Donohue, 2006 Aug 18. Traversing the Adaptive Landscape in Snapdragons. Science 313:924-925.

Whibley et al., 2006 Aug 18. Evolutionary Paths Underlying Flower Color Variation in Antirrhinum. Science 313:963-966. "The genetic differences underlying various color morphs of two snapdragon species can be identified and used to construct their likely evolutionary path."

Smith, 2006 Aug 17. Homing in on the genes for humanity. (restricted access) Nature 442:725. "What makes us different from chimps?"

Stokstad, 2006 Aug 11. Native Mussel Quickly Evolves Fear of Invasive Crab. Science 313:745.

Coyne, 2006 Aug 11. Comment on "Gene Regulatory Networks and the Evolution of Animal Body Plans." Science 313:.

Erwin and Davidson, 2006 Aug 11. Response to Comment on "Gene Regulatory Networks and the Evolution of Animal Body Plans." Science 313:761.

Patel, 2006 Aug 03. How to build a longer beak. Nature 442:515. "Evolutionary changes in the beaks of Darwin's finches have been instrumental in the adaptive radiation of these birds. The molecular basis for variation in beak size and shape is opening up to investigation."

Queller, 2006 Jul 28. Dawkins's Dangerous Ideas. Science 313:443-444.
Book Review of Richard Dawkins: How a Scientist Changed the Way We Think by Alan Grafen and Mark Ridley, Eds.

Heeney et al., 2006 Jul 28. Origins of HIV and the Evolution of Resistance to AIDS. Science 313:462-466.

Maharjan et al., 2006 Jul 28. Clonal Adaptive Radiation in a Constant Environment. Science 313:514-517. “A genetically homogeneous population of Escherichia coli exhibits multiple phenotypes after 90 generations.”

Bonner, 2006 Jul 27. Design flaws. Nature 442:355. “Destroying the argument that intelligent design has a scientific basis.”
Book Review of Intelligent Thought: Science Versus the Intelligent Design Movement by John Brockman.

Lev-Yadun et al., 2006 Jul 21. How and When Was Wild Wheat Domesticated? (restricted access) Science 313:296-297.

Vagin et al., 2006 Jul 21. A Distinct Small RNA Pathway Silences Selfish Genetic Elements in the Germline. Science 313:320-324. “A third class of small RNAs, distinct from miRNAs and siRNAs, silences endogenous selfish genetic elements and repetitive sequences in animals.”

?, 2006 Jul 20. Palaeoanthropology: Decoding our cousins. Nature 442:238. “DNA extracted from bones could shed light on what happened when our ancestors crossed paths with Neanderthals. But not everyone can get the fossils out of the ground, as Rex Dalton learns.”

Pennisi, 2006 Jul 14. Competition Drives Big Beaks Out of Business. Science 313:156.

Cann, 2006 Jul 14. Silverbacks and Their Satellites. Science 313:174.

Grant and Grant, 2006 Jul 14. Evolution of Character Displacement in Darwin's Finches. Science 313:224-226. “Beak size in a finch Geospiza fortis on one Galápagos island diverged from that of a competitor (G. magnirostris) two decades after the latter’s arrival.”

Currat et al., 2006 Jul 14. Comment on "Ongoing Adaptive Evolution of ASPM, a Brain Size Determinant in Homo sapiens" and "Microcephalin, a Gene Regulating Brain Size, Continues to Evolve Adaptively in Humans". Science 313:172.

Lahn, 2006 Jul 14. Response to Comment on "Ongoing Adaptive Evolution of ASPM, a Brain Size Determinant in Homo sapiens" and "Microcephalin, a Gene Regulating Brain Size, Continues to Evolve Adaptively in Humans". Science 313:172.

Check, 2006 Jul 13. Genomics luminary weighs in on US faith debate. (restricted access) Nature 442:114. “Top geneticist asks the God question.”

Tickell, 2006 Jul 13. God is bred. (restricted access) Nature 442:137. “Religious belief can be viewed as an adaptation that was favoured as the human brain evolved.”
Book Review of Six Impossible Things Before Breakfast: The Evolutionary Origins of Belief by Lewis Wolpert.

Bengtson, 2006 Jul 13. Palaeontology: A ghost with a bite. Nature 442:146. “Witness a snail scraping microbial films from the inside of an aquarium. Go back 505 million years, and this looks to have been the way an enigmatic early animal made its living (but without the aquarium).”

Caron et al., 2006 Jul 13. A soft-bodied mollusc with radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Nature 442:159.

Demissew, 2006 Jul 06. Floral attraction. (restricted access) Nature 442:30.
Book Review of An Enthusiasm for Orchids: Sex and Deception by John Alcock.

Tarlinton et al., 2006 Jul 06. Retroviral invasion of the koala genome. Nature 442:79.

Nick Patterson et al., 2006 Jun 29. Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees. Nature 441:1103.

Stokstad, 2006 Jun 23. Spider Genes and Fossils Spin Tales of the Original Worldwide Web. Science 312:1730.

Gibbons, 2006 Jun 23. A Rare Meeting of the Minds. Science 312:1739-1740.

Peñalver et al., 2006 Jun 23. Early Cretaceous Spider Web with Its Prey. Science 312:1761. “A spider web with entrapped wasps and a beetle within 110-million-year-old amber documents that web-spinning spiders had already evolved.”

Garb et al., 2006 Jun 23. Silk Genes Support the Single Origin of Orb Webs. Science 312:1762. “Sequence analyses of the genes for spider silk proteins show that orb-webs, which allow spiders to catch flying prey, have a single, ancient origin in the late Jurassic.”

Vanhaeren et al., 2006 Jun 23. Middle Paleolithic Shell Beads in Israel and Algeria. Science 312:1785-1788. “A few drilled sea shells from two inland sites imply that humans developed ornamentation, a form of symbolic behavior, by about 100,000 years ago.”

Mitchell-Olds and Schmitt, 2006 Jun 22. Genetic mechanisms and evolutionary significance of natural variation in Arabidopsis. Nature 441:947.

Chang et al., 2006 Jun 22. A lamprey from the Cretaceous Jehol biota of China. Nature 441:972.

Unger, 2006 Jun 16. Fossil Embryos Hint at Early Start for Complex Development. Science 312:1587.

Sabeti et al., 2006 Jun 16. . Science 312:1614-1620. “Positive Natural Selection in the Human Lineage.”

You et al., 2006 Jun 16. A Nearly Modern Amphibious Bird from the Early Cretaceous of Northwestern China. Science 312:1640-1643. “A well-preserved bird from about 120 million years ago has webbed feet and other adaptations for an aquatic lifestyle and may be a predecessor of modern birds.”

Duret et al., 2006 Jun 16. The Xist RNA Gene Evolved in Eutherians by Pseudogenization of a Protein-Coding Gene. Science 312:1653-1655. “A noncoding RNA that silences extra copies of sex chromosomes evolved from a gene that lost its protein-coding function after the eutherian-marsupial divergence.”

?, 2006 Jun 15. In your own image. (restricted access) Nature 441:813. “Care must be taken when looking for natural selection to explain the evolution of human behaviour.”
Book Review of Weiss and Buchanan review Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors by Nicholas Wade.

Mavárez et al, 2006 Jun 15. Speciation by hybridization in Heliconius butterflies. Nature 441:868.

Stokstad, 2006 Jun 09. Ancient 'Reef' Stirs Debate Over Early Signs of Life in Australian Rocks. Science 312:1457.

Hamilton, 2006 Jun 08. Virology: The gene weavers. (restricted access) Nature 441:683. “Viruses are often thought of as simple creatures. But their staggering diversity and genetic promiscuity could make them the most creative force in evolution.”

Awramik, 2006 Jun 08. Palaeontology: Respect for stromatolites. Nature 441:700. “Is it time to stop worrying over whether the ancient structures called stromatolites are of microbial origin? 'Yes' is the answer to emerge from field and lab work on a 3,430-million-year-old marine ecosystem.”

Bjork and Pitnick, 2006 Jun 08. Intensity of sexual selection along the anisogamy–isogamy continuum. Nature 441:742.

Holden, 2006 Jun 02. Court Revives Georgia Sticker Case. Science 312:1292.

Brumm et al., 2006 Jun 01. Early stone technology on Flores and its implications for Homo floresiensis. Nature 441:624.

Holden, 2006 Jun 30. Long-Ago Peoples May Have Been Long in the Tooth. Science 312:1867.

Holden, 2006 Jun 30. An Evolutionary Squeeze on Brain Size. Science 312:1867.

Ammerman et al., 2006 Jun 30. Comment on "Ancient DNA from the First European Farmers in 7500-Year-Old Neolithic Sites" . Science 312:1875.

Burger et al., 2006 Jun 30. Response to Comment on "Ancient DNA from the First European Farmers in 7500-Year-Old Neolithic Sites". Science 312:1875.

Fry, 2006 May 26. Search for Life's Beginnings. Science 312:1140-1141.
Book Review of Genesis: The Scientific Quest for Life's Origin by Robert M. Hazen.

Fuyuno, 2006 May 25. Teenager waits 40 years for recognition. (restricted access) Nature 441:390. "Fossil is finally hailed as new Asian plesiosaur."

Pearson, 2006 May 25. Genetics: What is a gene? Nature 441:398. "The idea of genes as beads on a DNA string is fast fading. Protein-coding sequences have no clear beginning or end and RNA is a key part of the information package."

?, 2006 May 25. Genetics: Paramutable possibilities. Nature 441:413. "A curious genetic phenomenon allows certain genetic instructions to be passed between generations without the gene variants involved being transmitted. Some spotty mice provide clues to how this might happen."

Rassoulzadegan et al., 2006 May 25. RNA-mediated non-mendelian inheritance of an epigenetic change in the mouse. Nature 441:469.

MacLean and Gudelj, 2006 May 25. Resource competition and social conflict in experimental populations of yeast. Nature 441:498. "Resource competition and social conflict in experimental populations of yeast."

Ohtsuki et al., 2006 May 25. A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks. Nature 441:502.

Jager et al., 2006 May 25. Homology of arthropod anterior appendages revealed by Hox gene expression in a sea spider. Nature 441:506.

Culotta, 2006 May 19. How the Hobbit Shrugged: Tiny Hominid's Story Takes New Turn. Science 312:983-984.

Culotta, 2006 May 19. But Is It Pathological? Science 312:983.

Pennisi, 2006 May 19. Genomes Throw Kinks in Timing of Chimp-Human Split . Science 312:985-986.

McInerney, 2006 May 19. Incorporating Evolution into Medical Education. Science 312:998.

Suddendorf, 2006 May 19. Foresight and Evolution of the Human Mind . Science 312:1006-1007.

Martin et al., 2006 May 19. Comment on "The Brain of LB1, Homo floresiensis." Science 312:999.

Falk et al., 2006 May 19. Response to Comment on "The Brain of LB1, Homo floresiensis" . Science 312:999.

Dalton, 2006 May 18. Neanderthal DNA yields to genome foray. (restricted access) Nature 441:260. "Genetic material sequenced from 45,000-year-old male."

Gingras, 2006 May 18. ID paper wasn't impartial enough for committee. (restricted access) Nature 441:282.

Gee, 2006 May 18. Evolution: Experiments in botany. Nature 441:298.

Arnold and Zuberbühler, 2006 May 18. Language evolution: Semantic combinations in primate calls. Nature 441:303. "Putty-nosed monkeys rely on two basic calling sounds to construct a message of utmost urgency."

Fiegna, et al., 2006 May 18. Evolution of an obligate social cheater to a superior cooperator. Nature 441:310.

Friedman, 2006 May 18. Embryological evidence for developmental lability during early angiosperm evolution. Nature 441:337.

Qiu, 2006 May 11. Epigenetics: Unfinished symphony. Nature 441:143. To correctly 'play' the DNA score in our genome, cells must read another notation that overlays it — the epigenetic code. A global effort to decode it is now in the making."

Sperber, 2006 May 11. Evolution of the selfish gene. Nature 441:151. "The thirtieth anniversary of Richard Dawkins' landmark work provides an opportunity to take stock."
Book Review of Richard Dawkins: How a Scientist Changed the Way We Think by Alan Grafen and Mark Ridley.

Field et al., 2006 May 11. Future fitness and helping in social queues. Nature 441:214.

Dall et al., 2006 May 05. Debating Sexual Selection and Mating Strategies. (restricted access) Science 312:.

Shu et al., 2006 May 05. Lower Cambrian Vendobionts from China and Early Diploblast Evolution. Science 312:731-734. "A Cambrian fossil with closely spaced branches closely resembles one of several enigmatic animals from the late Precambrian, providing a possible evolutionary link."

Zhu et al., 2006 May 04. A primitive fish provides key characters bearing on deep osteichthyan phylogeny. Nature 441:77.

Qvarnström et al., 2006 May 04. Testing the genetics underlying the co-evolution of mate choice and ornament in the wild. Nature 441:84.

Bejerano et al., 2006 May 04. A distal enhancer and an ultraconserved exon are derived from a novel retroposon. Nature 441:87.

Hammerstein and Hagen, 2006 Apr 28. Broken Cogs or Strategic Agents? Science 312:530.
Book Review of Genes in Conflict: The Biology of Selfish Genetic Elements by Austin Burt and Robert Trivers.

Eyre-Walker, 2006 Apr 28. Size Does Not Matter for Mitochondrial DNA. Science 312:537-538.

Bazin et al., 2006 Apr 28. Population Size Does Not Influence Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity in Animals . Science 312:570-572. "Mitochondrial DNA, often used as an index of population size because of its assumed evolutionary neutrality, in fact is unpredictably related to population demographics."

Dalton, 2006 April 27. Feel it in your bones. (restricted access) Nature 440:1100. "Deciding whether our ancestors evolved as a single lineage may depend more on philosophy than fossils."

Thompson, 2006 Apr 21. Mutualistic Webs of Species. Science 312:372-373.

Bascompte et al., 2006 Apr 21. Asymmetric Coevolutionary Networks Facilitate Biodiversity Maintenance. Science 312:431-433. "Large-scale analysis of many plant-animal networks shows that one-sided relationships (a plant depends on a moth for pollination, for example) confer stability on the community."

Mossel and Vigoda, 2006 Apr 21. Response to Comment on "Phylogenetic MCMC Algorithms Are Misleading on Mixtures of Trees." Science 312:367.

Wray, 2006 April 20. Evolution: Spot on (and off). Nature 440:1001. "The repeated appearance and loss of a spot on the wings of fruitflies during their evolution is caused by mutations in one gene. This finding provides an unprecedented window on the genetics of convergent evolution."

Sebastián, 2006 April 20. Apesteguía and Zaher. Nature 440:1037. A Cretaceous terrestrial snake with robust hindlimbs and a sacrum.

Burtsev and Turchin, 2006 April 20. Evolution of cooperative strategies from first principles. Nature 440:1041.

Prud'homme et al., 2006 April 20. Repeated morphological evolution through cis-regulatory changes in a pleiotropic gene. Nature 440:1050.

Yoshikuni et al., 2006 April 20. Designed divergent evolution of enzyme function. Nature 440:1078.

Gibbons, 2006 Apr 14. Fossils Clinch Identity of Lucy's Ancestor. Science 312:178.

Leinfelder, 2006 Apr 14. Archaeopteryx: The Lost Evidence. (restricted access)Science 312:197-198.

Tim D. White et al., 2006 April 13. Asa Issie, Aramis and the origin of Australopithecus. Nature 440:883.

Stephen Wooding et al., 2006 April 13. Independent evolution of bitter-taste sensitivity in humans and chimpanzees. Nature 440:930.

Pennisi, 2006 Apr 07. Fossil Shows an Early Fish (Almost) out of Water. Science 312:33.

Redecker, 2006 Apr 07. Evolution of Metazoa and Fungi. (restricted access) Science 312:53-54.

Norman, 2006 Apr 07. True Giants on Earth. (restricted access) Science 312:57.

Adami, 2006 Apr 07. Reducible Complexity. Science 312:61-63.

Bridgham et al., 2006 Apr 07. Evolution of Hormone-Receptor Complexity by Molecular Exploitation . Science 312:97-101. "A steroid receptor developed its modern specificity by changes in two amino acids, followed by modification of a steroid biosynthetic enzyme to make its ligand."

Moreau, 2006 Apr 07. Phylogeny of the Ants: Diversification in the Age of Angiosperms. Science 312:101-104. "A phylogeny constructed with DNA sequence data from 139 of the 288 extantant genera indicates that modern ants arose 140 to 170 million years ago but diversified much later."

Weinreich, 2006 Apr 07. Darwinian Evolution Can Follow Only Very Few Mutational Paths to Fitter Proteins. Science 312:111-114. Of 120 ways in which an enzyme can sequentially acquire five mutations that together confer drug resistance, 102 fail because the intermediate combinations decrease fitness."

Hoag, 2006 April 06. Study of 'intelligent design' refused funds.. (restricted access) Nature 440:720. Doubts over evolution block funding by Canadian agency

Ahlberg and Clack, 2006 April 06. Palaeontology: A firm step from water to land. Nature 440:747. "A project designed to discover fossils that illuminate the transition between fishes and land vertebrates has delivered the goods. At a stroke, our picture of that transition is greatly improved."

Odling-Smee, 2006 April 06. Evolution: It pays to laze. Nature 440:748.

Daeschler et al., 2006 April 06. A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the evolution of the tetrapod body plan. Nature 440:757.

Shubin et al., 2006 April 06. The pectoral fin of Tiktaalik roseae and the origin of the tetrapod limb. Nature 440:764.

Remmel, 2006 Mar. Evo Devo Psych. American Scientist (March 2006)
Book Review of Origins of the Social Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and Child Development by Bruce J. Ellis and David F. Bjorklund (eds).

Dorit, 2006 Mar. Darwin on Display. American Scientist (March 2006)
Book Review of Darwin: Discovering the Tree of Life by Niles Eldredge.

Tanno and Willcox, 2006 Mar 31. How Fast Was Wild Wheat Domesticated? Science 311:1886. "The abundance of wild shattered wheat spikelets in archaeological sites in the Near East implies that domestication of cereals started early but proceeded slowly."

Li et al., 2006 Mar 31. Rice Domestication by Reducing Shattering. Science 311:1936-1939. "The retention of rice grains on the plant after ripening—a trait important for domestication—is the result of a single nucleotide change in a transcription factor gene."

Crow, 2006 Mar 30. A selfish element. (restricted access) Nature 440:609.
Book Review of Genes in Conflict: The Biology of Selfish Genetic Elements by Austin Burt and Robert Trivers.

Embley and Martin, 2006 Mar 30. Eukaryotic evolution, changes and challenges. Nature 440:623.

Falkowski, 2006 Mar 24. Tracing Oxygen's Imprint on Earth's Metabolic Evolution. Science 311:1724-1725.

Lynch et al., 2006 Mar 24. Mutation Pressure and the Evolution of Organelle Genomic Architecture. Science 311:1727-1730.

Ochman and Davalos, 2006 Mar 24. The Nature and Dynamics of Bacterial Genomes. Science 311:1730-1733.

Coleman, 2006 Mar 24. Genomic Islands and the Ecology and Evolution of Prochlorococcus. Science 311:1768-1770. "As with other bacteria, genetic differences between closely related strains of phytoplankton are clustered in genomic islands, probably acquired by phage-assisted lateral gene transfer."

Rieseberg et al., 2006 Mar 23. The nature of plant species. Nature 440:524.

Hegreness et al., 2006 Mar 17. An Equivalence Principle for the Incorporation of Favorable Mutations in Asexual Populations. Science 311:1615-1617. "Evolution of asexual populations, as in bacteria, viruses, or cancer cells, is described by a model in which all beneficial mutations have equal effects and occur at the same rate."

?, 2006 Mar 16. Palaeontology: Scales, feathers and dinosaurs. Nature 440:287. "A fossil dinosaur that 'nests' with feathered relations in the dinosaur phylogenetic tree did not, it seems, have feathers. The discovery will encourage a re-evaluation of feather evolution."

Göhlich and Chiappe, 2006 Mar 16. A new carnivorous dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen archipelago. Nature 440:329.

Pennisi, 2006 Mar 10. Speciation Standing in Place. Science 311:1372-1374.

Dawson, 2006 Mar 10. Laonastes and the "Lazarus Effect" in Recent Mammals. Science 311:1456-1458. "A recently discovered living rodent is a survivor of a family thought to have been extinct for 11 million years."

Parker et al., 2006 Mar 10. Opposing Effects of Native and Exotic Herbivores on Plant Invasions. Science 311:1459 - 1461.

Nielsen, 2006 Mar 09. Comparative genomics: Difference of expression. Nature 440:161. "Evolutionary studies tend to focus on alterations in proteins. But evolutionary change can often occur through modified gene expression, a process that is now under investigation with species-specific microarrays."

von Grotthuss et al., 2006 Mar 31. Influenza Mutation from Equine to Canine. (restricted access) Science 311:1241-1242.

Martin and Koonin, 2006 Mar 02. Introns and the origin of nucleus–cytosol compartmentalization. Nature 440:41.

Azevedo et al., 2006 Mar 02. Sexual reproduction selects for robustness and negative epistasis in artificial gene networks. Nature 440:87-90.

Wong, 2005 Feb. Giant Hominid teeth not for crunching nuts, but shellfish. Scientific American (February 2005).

Holden, 2006 Feb 24. Ohio School Board Boots Out ID. Science 311:1083.

Ferber, 2006 Feb 24. Preyed Upon, Hominids Began to Cooperate. Science 311:1095. "Our hominid ancestors actually lived as prey rather than predators, a researcher argued at the AAAS annual meeting, held here from 16 to 20 February. And our past as prey, he speculates, laid the foundations of society by forcing those ancestors to live together peacefully in groups."

Martin, 2006 Feb 24. Early Mammalian Evolutionary Experiments. Science 311:1109-1110.

Ji et al., 2006 Feb 24. A Swimming Mammaliaform from the Middle Jurassic and Ecomorphological Diversification of Early Mammals. Science 311:1123-1127. "A ~164-million-year-old mammal from China, resembling a beaver with body fur and a broad scaly tail, shows that early mammals were large and inhabited aquatic environments."

Orgel , 2006 Feb 23. In the beginning. Nature 439:915.
Book Review of Genesis: The Scientific Quest for Life's Origins by Robert M. Hazen.

Gee, 2006 Feb 23. Evolution: Careful with that amphioxus. Nature 439:923. "The textbook tale of vertebrate origins is brought into question by phylogenetic analyses of new genomic data. But the amphioxus, long viewed as a precursor to fish, remains a central character in events."

Delsuc et al., 2006 Feb 23. Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates. Nature 439:965.

Kerr, 2006 Feb 17. Revised Numbers Quicken the Pace of Rebound From Mass Extinctions . Science 311:931.

Nielsen, 2006 Feb 17. Why Sex? Science 311:960-961.

Paland and Lynch, 2006 Feb 17. Transitions to Asexuality Result in Excess Amino Acid Substitutions. Science 311:990-992. "Comparison of asexual and sexual strains of the water flea show that asexual reproduction leads to more deleterious mutations, confirming the advantage of sex."

Phillips et al., 2006 Feb 16. Invasion and the evolution of speed in toads. Nature 439:803. "Cane toads seem to have honed their dispersal ability to devastating effect over the generations."

Hopkin, 2006 Feb 16. One place, one parent, two species. (restricted access) Nature 439:640. "Island hosts double boost for evolutionary theory."

Holtz, 2006 Feb 16. Palaeontology: A Jurassic tyrant is crowned. Nature 439:665. "A newly discovered species of dinosaur, characterized by a wonderfully elaborate head crest, is the oldest known member of the lineage that culminated in Tyrannosaurus rex more than 90 million years later."

Gee, 2006 Feb 16. Evolution: Memories of mammoths. Nature 439:673.

Holden, 2006 Feb 10. Darwin's Place on Campus Is Secure--But Not Supreme. Science 311:769-771.

Culotta, 2006 Feb 10. Is ID on the Way Out? Science 311:770.

Kutschera, 2006 Feb 02. Mudskippers undermine ID claims on macroevolution. (restricted access) Nature 439:534.

Ruse, 2006 Feb 02. A natural history of religion. Nature 439:535. "A darwinian philosopher turns his attention to the strength of religion in the United States."
Book Review of Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon by Daniel C. Dennett.

Fry et al., 2006 Feb 02. Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes. Nature 439:584.

Russell, 2006 Jan-Feb. First Life. American Scientist (January-February 2006). "Billions of years ago, deep under the ocean, the pores and pockets in minerals that surrounded warm, alkaline springs catalyzed the beginning of life."

Park et al., 2006 Jan 27. Design and Evolution of New Catalytic Activity with an Existing Protein Scaffold. Science 311:535-538. "A process that mimics natural protein evolution converts an enzyme in the metallohydrolase superfamily into a new family member with a different catalytic function."

Butler, 2006 Jan 19. Alarms ring over bird flu mutations. (restricted access) Nature 439:248. "Turkish virus shows increased affinity for humans."

Brazeau and Ahlberg, 2006 Jan 19. Tetrapod-like middle ear architecture in a Devonian fish. Nature 439:318.

Winters, 2006 Jan 13. The World Through Darwin's Lens. Science 311:179.

Whitfield, 2006 Jan 12. Origins of DNA: Base invaders. Nature 439:130. "Could viruses have invented DNA as a way to sneak into cells?"

Li and Luo, 2006 Jan 12. A Cretaceous symmetrodont therian with some monotreme-like postcranial features. Nature 439:195.

Clark, 2006 Jan 06. A Different Kind of Croc. Science 311:43-44.

Gasparini et al., 2006 Jan 06. An Unusual Marine Crocodyliform from the Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary of Patagonia. Science 311:70-73. "A marine crocodile living 150 million years ago had a short, heavy snout with only a few large serrated teeth, in contrast to the long, narrow snout of most other crocodiles."

Currie et al., 2006 Jan 06. Coevolved Crypts and Exocrine Glands Support Mutualistic Bacteria in Fungus-Growing Ants. Science 311:81-83. "Special anatomical structures on the bodies of attine ants house bacteria that produce antibiotics to help to ward off parasites in the ants' fungal gardens."

Marris, 2006 Jan 05. Intelligent design verdict set to sway other cases. (restricted access) Nature 439:6. "Failure in court sets offers evolutionary precedent."

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Copyright © 2006 Stanley C. Spencer. All Rights Reserved.